Re: playing at suicide

From: Grant Callaghan (
Date: Mon Jan 07 2002 - 20:11:59 GMT

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    >so tell me more about your theory !?

    I promised to send you one of my diatribes on the subject of memetics. The
    following is a letter I wrote to Susan Blackmore but never found a way to
    deliver after reading her book on memetics.

    Dear Ms. Blackmore,

    I was just reading The Meme Machine and I was struck by an idea that may
    make the field of memetics more like a science. The key to my idea is to
    give up the ‘selfish meme’ concept. There is selfishness, all right, but it
    is not the meme that is selfish. In that sense a meme is not much like a

    Memes, in my estimation, are a set of tools we use to accomplish certain
    objectives in our daily lives. Each tool is a meme and vice versa. That
    simplifies the task of identifying a meme and categorizing it. I ask you
    to hear me out and respond to the following challenge: give me an example
    of a meme that is NOT a tool.

    The primary difference, in my mind, between humans and other animals is our
    ability to use tools. Not that we can and they can’t. But a human can
    juggle over a million tools in his mind at one time. It is the extent of
    our tool-using that sets us apart. Humans can use anything as a tool. In
    fact, humans can use nothing as a tool. The concept of zero is one of the
    most useful ideas in mathematics – it revolutionized the subject in Roman
    times. Zero, nothing, no thing.

    The average college student commands over 20,000 words in his vocabulary.
    But he is also able to make use of such concepts, memes, tools as the amount
    of silence between words to convey meaning. That is silence, no sound,
    nothing. We also use every possible contortion of our faces to convey
    information. A wink, a smile, a frown, a drooping eyelid, a wrinkled nose
    or brow, the angle of one’s head, and more are used as tools to convey
    information of one kind or another. The term poker face even defines the
    use of that expression. It is an attempt to keep one’s face blank during
    some transaction in order to gain an advantage. Of course, the blank face
    also conveys information because everybody knows what the user is using it
    for. But think of it. The lack of expression is being used as a tool to
    both hide information and to convey it at the same time.

    My degree was in Linguistics. In my studies I came to the conclusion that
    we learn the linguistic tools we use to communicate one at a time, starting
    with “ma” and “ba” in our earliest attempts to influence the behavior of our
    parents. The child makes a great number of random sounds in the first year
    or childhood and discovers that some of them elicit a reaction. Over time,
    those that are rewarded by parental or other attention are retained and
    enlarged upon, while those that get no response are dropped. This is the
    first instance of the evolution of language in a child. Useful sounds are
    kept in the vocabulary and the useless ones discarded.

    This is the key to my concept. It is not the memes that are selfish – it is
    the person, the brain, the individual who is using them. We choose the
    tools/memes from the store that is available to us based on how well they do
    the job we are trying to accomplish with them. The older we grow, the more
    we have available. We see someone use a tool to get something and we try to
    use it. If it doesn’t work as we expected, we listen again and try again
    until we can use it, or we discard it. There is a limit to the number of
    sounds we can handle in daily conversation, for example, so we settle on
    those that are most useful to us and drop the rest.

    When we try to communicate, we use sounds that are grouped into syllables,
    then into words, then sentences. Each sound is a meme, a tool for
    communication. Each word is also a meme. In addition, the organization of
    the sounds and the words is a set of memes. We don’t put the object of our
    sentence before the verb, as the Japanese do, for example. The article
    always comes before a noun rather than after it. Even the division of our
    words into categories such as noun and verb, etc., are memes. And we
    acquire them slowly, bit by bit, through imitation and practice at first,
    and finally by just reading or hearing about them. Additional memes are
    added to the sounds by the stress we put on certain words and syllables.
    The loudness with which we say some words, the hardness or softness of our
    voice, all are memes of communication.

    The Japanese language is an excellent example of how the process works.
    Prior to 600 AD, the Japanese had no written language. On their journeys to
    Korea, they observed the Koreans and Chinese using writing to store and
    convey information, so they started learning to write Chinese. By doing
    this, they brought thousands of Chinese words into the Japanese language.
    By the beginning of the 20th century, almost every concept in Japanese had a
    Chinese pronunciation and a Japanese pronunciation. The Chinese, for
    example have an ideograph for mountain. They see it and pronounce it
    “Shan.” In Southern China, they pronounced it “San.” Today, the Japanese
    use the same ideograph, but they have two ways to pronounce it: “san” and
    “yama.” The former is the borrowed Chinese pronunciation and the latter is
    the old Japanese pronunciation. The former is used in regular speech, the
    latter is used when the ideograph is part of someone’s name – Yamamoto, for
    example, is a person’s name, and Fuji san means mount Fuji.

    Another problem with borrowing Chinese was the fact that all written words
    in Chinese are monosyllabic while Japanese is a polysyllabic language. So
    over a period of several hundred years, the Japanese learned to add what
    they call “kana” to the ideographic characters to tell the reader the
    additional sounds needed to make it sound Japanese. In addition, they
    learned to rearrange the words, to fit the Japanese grammar memes. The
    Japanese arrange their words in the order of subject, object, verb. Chinese
    is written and spoken in the order of subject, verb, object. Modern
    Japanese consider the way they arrange and pronounce their strings of
    syllables the only proper way to do it. They have a different set of
    memes/tools for arranging words. The Japanese of post-war Japan has nearly
    as many words of English origin as of Chinese or Japanese origin.

    The clothes we wear, the way we cut our hair, the way we stand or walk, are
    all memes we use to communicate various ideas about ourselves and how we
    expect to relate to the people around us. For those who think some of these
    things are instinctual, such as the expression of pain, I would like to
    point out that “ouch” is not a reflex, but a tool used to communicate the
    fact that we feel pain. The Japanese say “itai,” the Chinese say “aiyo,”
    the Philipino says “opo” or “apo da” to express the same feeling. Laughing
    is another means or tool of expression. The average person has many ways of
    laughing. Eric Berne, the psychiatrist listed them as “hee hee,” “ha ha,”
    and “ho ho.” Each had a different significance for what was going on among
    the members of a group during Transactional Analysis. We tend to use the
    type that expresses how we feel about what is going on at the time. In
    other words, the expression of pain and laughter are memes.

    If we define a meme as a tool that we have inherited from the society in
    which we live, it makes deciding what is and is not a meme a bit easier. It
    also makes it easy to trace how memes are acquired and discarded in their
    never ending struggle for existence. We choose the tool we think will do
    the best job. It is the person using the tool, therefore, who decides which
    memes to keep and which to stop or avoid using. People are the controlling
    factor in the evolution of culture in all of its plurality and scope. It is
    not memes deciding what we will inherit and add to the pool, it is we who
    make that decision.

    Genes, on the other hand, do influence that decision. They produce the
    chemicals which cause us to make emotional choices about who will inherit
    our genes and who won’t. Lust, anger, fear, jealousy, and other emotions
    are the product of chemical responses to our environment and are dictated by
    the gene mix that guided our construction.

    Culture is the beast that memes construct. And our decisions on which
    elements of it we decide to use are what define it. Genes have some input
    to that, but are seldom the final arbiters. They influence why some sounds
    please us more than others, why some colors have more or less appeal, and
    why the pictures we see in our minds upon reading a poem or novel make us
    feel sad, or glad, or satisfied.

    Another characteristic of memes is that each one is created by a human being
    through a process that includes testing and acceptance. The fact that
    someone else decides to try a meme and use it shows that it has the
    potential for success. When it begins to proliferate, you know it has

    They say the final arbiter of scientific method is the ability of a theory
    to predict a certain result. I think my theory of what constitutes a meme
    can be used to predict which memes will be taken in or discarded by a
    particular society. The question is how?

    You begin with a segment of society and analyze what they do. Then you
    observe the different sets of tools they use for some particular purpose.
    From time to time you will see someone select or create a tool that had not
    been used by this group before. If the user is able to accomplish his
    objectives with the new tool, he will no doubt find a reason to use it
    again. Many will probably be tried and discarded. When one is successful
    and others begin trying it, you can be fairly sure it will spread and become
    a part of the repertory of this group and will likely spread to other groups
    of a similar nature.

    It can be as simple as a hand gesture. The ‘high five” started with a group
    of blacks as one of many hand signals they used for establishing homogeneity
    as a group. Most of the signals they used are no longer remembered. The
    high five, however, spread throughout black society, along with the
    popularity of sports figures who used it, and today you’ll find it being
    used among people in every segment of American society. The uses to which
    it is put have also grown. It now carries connotations of success as well
    as solidarity. It has spawned variations such as the “low five” which may
    or may not grow and multiply.

    If you try to divorce memes from the process by which they are created and
    perpetuated, you will be heading down a blind alley. There will be no clear
    way to determine what is or is not a meme. You will be unable to track a
    meme’s evolution and absorption into our culture. Right now people are
    pointing in all directions and calling all sorts of things memes without
    finding agreement with others trying to define the concept. I think I have
    a solution.


    Grant Callaghan

    Another concept that I don't find any sign of on the web is how memes (as I
    define them) are taking over the evolution of life on earth. Rather than
    genes and natural selection guiding the course of life on our planet these
    days, memes are being used to design the shape of genes in plants and
    animals that will, if we don't kill ourselves first, cover the earth. Some
    70% of of the soybeans in America, for instance, are being grown with
    altered genes. We also have golden rice in Asia that adds vitamin A to the
    rice genome. Its popularity is spreading fast. 200,000 Chinese biologists
    are trained in designing crops for the largest population in the world.

    In addition to this, more and more land is being removed from the biosphere
    to make room for farms and ranches. At some point in the future, the
    genomes of most of the plants and animals grown on this planet will be
    altered or designed by humans and their culture. This means that memes will
    become the driving force behind how plants and animals evolve. No one seems
    to be talking about the consequences of this development. Maybe someone
    should write a book called: EVOLUTION IS DEAD. ;-)>


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