Received: by alpheratz.cpm.aca.mmu.ac.uk id NAA23260 (8.6.9/5.3[ref email@example.com] for cpm.aca.mmu.ac.uk from firstname.lastname@example.org); Tue, 21 Aug 2001 13:06:20 +0100 From: Philip Jonkers <P.A.E.Jonkers@phys.rug.nl> X-Authentication-Warning: rugth1.phys.rug.nl: www-data set sender to jonkers@localhost using -f To: email@example.com Subject: Re: Spoiled Reward-Pathway Hypothesis Message-ID: <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: Tue, 21 Aug 2001 14:04:12 +0200 (CEST) References: <3B8055B5.8367.2C4117@localhost> <3B81CC5F.17306.7FA755@localhost> <3B823FC0.FA5C1329@bioinf.man.ac.uk> In-Reply-To: <3B823FC0.FA5C1329@bioinf.man.ac.uk> Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit User-Agent: IMP/PHP IMAP webmail program 2.2.5 X-Originating-IP: 22.214.171.124 Sender: email@example.com Precedence: bulk Reply-To: firstname.lastname@example.org
Quoting Chris Taylor <Christopher.Taylor@man.ac.uk>:
> email@example.com wrote:
> > On 20 Aug 2001, at 16:11, Philip Jonkers wrote:
> > > Philip:
> > > > > Natural selection ought to favor birds who aren't drunk
> > > > an
> > > > > entire season. I am well aware also that drugs (including
> > > > are
> > > > > not uncommon for usage in the animal kingdom. I cannot
> > > > > really, that natural selection would allow for animal
> > > > > to emerge and maintain in the extremely competitive and
> > > > natural
> > > > > world.
> > > Joe:
> > > > It's a cost-benefit analysis; when fermented barries are the
> > > > (or the major) source of food available, the collateral damage
> > > > drunken birds do to themselves could be much less than the
> > > > die-off afflicting starving flocks. Of course, selection
> > > > would progressively weed out those birds unable to handle their
> > > > liquor, the ones who could handle it would live to reproduce,
> > > > subsequent generations would find the equation more and more in
> > > > favor of the berry-eating stoners.
> > >
> > > Hi Joe, thanks also for the feedback. Fair enough, natural
> > > seems to favor the sober animal and permits the occasional user.
> > > much for the animal kingdom, I'm still left with humans who, I
> > > it's safe to say, generally are susceptible to develop addiction
> > > whatever kind. Can you account for this with arguments ignoring
> > > culture?
> > >
> > We may feel a greater need to keep our bigger brains occupied.
> Lots of drugs make animals feel better about things (calmer, happier,
> weirder etc.), but humans control their environment in a way no other
> animal does. We have taken ourselves out of the 'red in tooth and
> claw'-style selection, so we are released to tickle our own pleasure
> centres because the risk side of the equation is diminished. Other
> animals would if they could (and some do).
> Anyone got any good alcoholic lab rat stories?
Again, I am well aware that animals may be made addicts too.
In a controlled lab-environment that is.
In the past I did some internet searching on animal drug use
and this is what I came up with:
1. "Homo Intoxicatus"
3. "Drug Use In Nature and Prehistoric Times"
4. "Life in Pursuit of Artificial Paradise"
5. "Wicked Butterflies"
6. "Evolutionary origins of alcoholism and addiction"
7. "Strange But True"
8. "Health and Fitness: Counteracting the Side-Effects of Alcohol" (The
9. "Long summer drought may explain squirrely fall in the Northeast"
10. "The Dope on Drugs: How the Most Popular Substances Affect Your Brain,
Body and Behavior"
I acknowledge we humans have succeeded in creating an
environment (culture) which tolerates and supports (extensive)
addictive behavior. Through posing my hypothesis, I was
wondering whether or not it is precisely our culture which
has fed emergence of addictive behavior by evolving our
brain correspondingly. Maybe this is reflected in the
relative size of our reward-pathway being larger than that
of other animals (primates, in particular, make fine comparison
material). Or perhaps our brain releases more dopamine or
has higher functional dopamine levels than other animals.
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