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Although it never mentions the words "meme" or "memetics," I found the
following article at the Santa Fe Institute both interesting and applicable.
Others may disagree. I don't mind in the least. It mentions tools I
think may be applied to the field of memetics although the author does not
narrow the application that much.
A New Factor in Evolution
By J. Mark Baldwin
SFI book list
The original paper appeared in The American Naturalist 30 (June 1896):
This paper is reprinted in Adaptive Individuals in Evolving Populations:
Models and Algorithms, edited by R. K. Belew and M. Mitchell (SFI Studies in
the Sciences of Complexity, Proc. Vol. XXVI, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA,
In several recent publications I have developed, from different points of
view, some considerations which tend to bring out a certain influence at
work in organic evolution which I venture to call "a new factor." I give
below a list of references to these publications and shall refer to them by
number as this paper proceeds. The object of the present paper is to
gather into one sketch an outline of the view of the process of development
which these different publications have hinged upon.
The problems involved in a theory of organic development may be gathered up
under three great heads: Ontogeny, Phylogeny, Heredity. The general
consideration, the "factor" which I propose to bring out, is operative in
the first instance, in the field of Ontogeny; I shall consequently speak
first of the problem of Ontogeny, then of that of Phylogeny, in so far as
the topic dealt with makes it necessary, then of that of Heredity, under the
same limitation, and finally, give some definitions and conclusions.
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This was distributed via the memetics list associated with the
Journal of Memetics - Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission
For information about the journal and the list (e.g. unsubscribing)
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